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Friday, September 21, 2018

Regions of China

Within the territory is mostly mountainous, but the coastline is extended. China, with an area of 9.5981 million square kilometres, is the third largest Country in the world by extension, after Russia and Canada. It has a great climate and landscape variety. In the inner part of the land it is mostly mountainous, but the coastline is extended. 

China is crossed by about 5,000 rivers, 1,500 of which have a water basin with a surface area extending for 1,000 sq. km. Approximately 50% of them flow from west to east into the Chinese seas, areas of the Pacific Ocean, the remaining, void of sea outlets, pour into the arid northern and western basins, where the water seep into the ground, forming deep and important water reserves. The three major Chinese rivers are Huang He (or Yellow River), Chang Jiang (or Yangtze River) and Xi Jiang. 

China's climate is part of the temperate zone and is strongly influenced by the monsoon winds. Considered the vastness of the Country, the climatic conditions vary from region to region, in particular, the winter temperatures are very different between North and South:

  1. NORTH - there are concentrated the major cities, such as Beijing, where the winters are cold and summers are dry and rainy; in the eastern part and along the coastal area there are long periods of fog.
  2. NORTH-EAST - summer is short and cool while the winter is hard. The autonomous region of Manchuria in the North East has a cold climate with summers rainy enough.
  3. NORTH-WEST - the climate is dry with rich rainfall, hail and sandstorm phenomena.
  4. SOUTH – the climate is subtropical..
  5. SOUTH-EAST - summer lasts all year with averages of 26° and the vegetation is always       green, the winter is mild but on the coasts, between July and November, several typhoons occur.
  6. SOUTH-WEST - the summers are cool and rainy while the winters are mild. The plateau of  Tibet, in south-west, the climate is arctic and air is dry. In the summer the temperature is below 15 ° with little precipitation, while in winter you can get to 30 degrees below zero.

The Republic of China (PRC) officially defines itself a multiethnic state and recognizes 56 different ethnic groups. The main ethnic group is the Han which includes 92% of the whole Chinese population, while the others are designated as minorities and considered part of larger ethnic group called Zhounghua Minzu (Chinese Ethnic). 

Spoken by at least one fifth of the world population, the Chinese language is comprised of various dialectal variants (about 750) and the main official language is Mandarin. All share a single Chinese language writing: it has allowed since ancient times people of different areas of the territory to find a common ground of communication, powerful factor of national cohesion. 

Since ancient times, China has had an administrative division on multiple levels to govern as widely as possible the vast territory and the high number of inhabitants. For this reason, the Constitution of the Republic of China establishes three levels of government: autonomous Regions, prefectures, counties and cities (although in practice there are five levels of government namely: the province, prefecture, county, municipality and village).

The territory is globally divided in: 

  • 22 provinces: Hebei, Shanxi, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Fujian, Jiangxi, Shandong, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Hainan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai.
  • 5 autonomous Regions: Guangxi, Mongolia interna, Ningxia, Xinjiang e il Tibet (Xizang).
  • 4 Municipalities: Pechino, Chongqing, Shangai, Tianjin.
  • 2 Special Administrative Regions of greater autonomy: Macao ed Hong Kong.

These areas, excluding Hong Kong and Macao, the two Special Administrative Regions (SARS), belong to the Chinese mainland, then there is Taiwan, a "de facto" sovereign state. With the name of China is to be understood that the PRC controls mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau.

The size of the continental Country, its geographical diversity and its ethnic mosaic imply a remarkable cultural diversity.


In recent years, many areas have been identified and/or cities in the Country with special geographical and economic characteristics for which were applied special and peculiar economic rules: the so-called – Special Economic Development Areas. These geographic regions with a national economic legislation different from that usually created to attract more foreign investments. In the PRC the term "Special", was adopted in the context of the issue of the economy, indicating specific policies and flexible measures for the management of the economic system.

Among these measures and policies there are:

  • Special tax incentives for foreign investors.
  • A greater independence for the management of activities related to international trade.
  • An economic development based on structures built to attract and use foreign capital (Joint-Venture).

The special economic areas of the PRC are:

  • In the province of Guangdong: Shenzhen, Zhuhai e Shantou.
  • In the province of Fujian: Xiamen.
  • The whole province of Hainan.

The choice of where to work or where to settle in China is crucial, Bright Business Consulting LLP is the congenial partner, that through appropriate "Company Investigations and Commercial Information"  can provide the support you need and the perfect accompaniment.

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